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日照中考英语语法详解:主谓一致

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一致一般遵循三条原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则和就近一致原则。

1. 语法一致的原则

(1)以单数名词或代词,动词不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词要用单数;主语为复数时,谓语用复数,譬喻:

He goes to school early every morning.

The children are playing outside.

To work hard is necessary for a student.

(2)由and或both……and毗连的并列身分作主语时,谓语动词用复数。譬喻:

Both he and I are right.

Mr Black and Mrs Black have a son called Tom.

但并列主语假如指的是同一人,同一事物或同一观念,谓语动词用单数。譬喻:

His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.

The poet and writer has come.

(3)由and毗连的并列单数主语之前假如别离由each, every修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。譬喻:

In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

Each man and each woman is asked to help.

(4)主语是单数时,尽量后头跟有 but ,except, besides, with 等介词短语,谓语动词仍用单数。譬喻:

The teacher with his students is going to visit the museum.

Nobody but two boys was late for class.

Bread and butter is a daily food in the west.

(5) 一些只有复数形式的名词,如people, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词要用复数。譬喻:

A lot of people are dancing outside.

The police are looking for lost boy.

(6)由each, some, any, no, every 组成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词都用单数。譬喻:

Is everybody ready?

Somebody is using the phone.

(7)有两部门组成的物体的名词,如glasses, shoes, trousers, chopsticks, scissors 等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。譬喻:

Where are my shoes? I can’t find them.

Your trousers are dirty. You’d better change them.

假如这类名词前用了a pair of等,则往往用作单数,谓语动词的单复数形式往往取决于pair的单复数形式。譬喻:

Here are some new pairs of shoes.

My new pair of socks is on the bed.

2. 意义一致的原则

(1)表时间、间隔、价值、怀抱衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词凡是用单数。譬喻:

Twenty years is not a long time.

Ten dollars is too dear.

(2)有些荟萃名词,如family, team等作主语时,如作为一个整体对待,谓语动词用单数;如指个中每个成员,则用复数。譬喻:

My family is big one.

My family are watching TV.

(3)不定代词由all, most, more, some, any, none作主语时,也要依这些代词暗示的意义来抉择谓语动词的单复数形式。假如代词代表复数可数名词,谓语动词用复数;假如代词代表单数可数名词或不行数名词,谓语动词用单数。譬喻:

All of the work has been finished.

All of the people have gone.

(4)疑问代词作主语时,其谓语动词也有两种环境:主语暗示复数意义,谓语动词用复数;主语暗示单数意义,则谓语动词用单数。譬喻:

Who is your brother?

Who are League members?

(5)“分数或百分数+of+名词”组成的词组作主语时,其谓语动词要以of后头的名词而定。名词是复数,谓语动词用复数:名词是单数,谓语动词用单数。譬喻:

It is said that 35 per cent of the doctors are women.

Three -fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.

(6)half, the rest等暗示不定命量的名词作主语时,假如所指为复数意义,动词用复数;假如所指为单数意义,动词用单数。譬喻:

I have read a large part of the book, the rest is more difficult.

Only ten students attended the class because all the rest were off sick.

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