来源:公共学习网 时间:2018-02-26


The old woman is alone in the house. 那位老妇一小我私家在屋里。

可当副词,修饰动词:She lives alone. 她独居。

Can you move the stone alone? 你能独自搬动那块儿石头吗?

Dick is walking on the beach alone. 狄克独自在海滩缓步。

(留意:不行说very alone. 但可说very much alone.)

2lonely, “孤傲的;寥寂的”带有伤感色彩。只当形容词。

可在系动词后作表语:The old man is lonely.这位老人是孤傲的。

He has many relatives, but he feels lonely. 他有许多亲戚,但感想孤傲。

(lonely 和心理感觉有关,而alone和心理感觉无关。)

也可在名词前作定语:a lonely person一位孤傲的人

a lonely village一个荒僻的乡村 (而alone不行作定语)

56.belong to与be: This suit belongs to me / Lucy / my brother. (直接加人)

This suit is mine / Lucy’s / my son’s / hers. (某物是或人的,所以用名词性物主代词。)

57.by常见用法:1“通过”I study English by memorizing grammar.

You can know it by looking it up in a dictionary. He travels by bike.

2“截至到”Will you finish the task by tomorrow?

The train had left by the time he got there.

3“被”This novel was written by Lu Xun.

4“颠末”He passed by me without noticing me.

5“在……旁边”Sit by me. They are playing by the river.

58.部门用in的短语: in a good way(用一个好要领), in the open air(在露天场合)


The food in China is quite different from that in America.

The weather of Hainan is better than that of Gansu.


A: I had an accident and broke my legs. B: I’m sorry to hear that.

3 this 更多指下文所说的事:The reason is this : ………..

4one 指代上文所说的某类可数名词单数,指同一类物但不是同一个。

This sweater is too expensive, do you have another one?(也指毛衣,但不是上文谁人) / by the end of, in the end 的区别:

1at the end of +时间点或所在,“在…的止境,在…的末端”

They will have a sports meeting at the end of March. (时间)

He put some books at the end of the bed. (所在)

2by the end of +时间点,“截至到…末”

若接已往的时间点,常用已往完成时: We had built ten buildings by the end of 2002. They had planted six thousand trees by the end of last month.

若接未来的时间,常用一般未来时:We shall finish the work by the end of next month.

3in the end “最后”,后不加of 短语:

They wanted to find a place to rest in, in the end, they saw a village.

78.have gone to/have been to/have been in: 1have gone to+所在“已去了…(还未返来)” -I can’t find those children, where are they?

-They have gone to the farm. (去了农场,不在这儿)

2have been to+所在“去过…(本往复过,此刻已回) ”句尾常接次数或多个所在

或before,或句中常有ever, never等。

She has been to Qingdao three times. I have been to two big cities.

Have you been to Dalian before? I have never / ever been to Dalian.

I have never been there before. Where have you been? 你去哪儿了?(此行省略了to)

3have been in + 所在,“已在…(多久了) ”句尾常接for + 时间段,或since + 时间点 / 一般已往时的句子。

Peter has been in China for a long time.

I’ve been here for 2 hours / since 2 hours ago. (此短语省略了in)

79.all / whole用法:all (of) the land / all (of) the class / all (of) the students…【all 在定冠词the 前】 the whole school / the whole country / the whole day… 【whole 在定冠词the 后】


80.a bit / a little区别:都可作副词,后直接加形容词或副词。

I’m a bit / a little hungry. She feels a bit / a little tired.


I have only a little drink. She ate a little bread and went out. (a little 直接加名词)

而下文:I have only a bit of drink. She ate a bit of bread. (a bit先加of,再跟名词)

81.“擅长”与“不擅长”: “对…有利”与“对…有害”:

“擅长”:be good at / do well in He is good at math. = He does well in math.

“不擅长”:be bad in / be poor in / be weak in / do badly in

“对…有利”:be good for “对…有害”:be bad for

82. 表数量的词与短语的部门用法:1none / all / some / most / more / plenty of / a lot of (lots of) / 后既可接可数名词复数,也可接不行数名词。 2many / (a) few / a number of / several只接可数名词复数。 3much / (a) little / a bit of只接不行数名词。


I really love reading. I really miss you. (修饰动词)

Tom speaks really quickly. 汤姆说得很是快。(修饰副词)

It’s really kind of you. 你真好。 (修饰形容词)

2very much常修饰动词want, miss, hate, love, like, dislike, enjoy, take after(长得像…), move(使…打动), excite(使…感动)等等。常在句尾。

Jack wants to go there very much. 杰克很想去那儿。

I hate reciting the words very much. 我很讨厌背单词。

He enjoyed the film very much. 他很喜欢这部影戏。

He takes after his mother very much. 他长得很像他妈妈。

(very much 不行修饰形容词和副词:I’m happy very much.是错误的。)


She is very kind. I am very happy. Peter speaks very slowly.

(very不行修饰动词:I very like English. He very misses you.等雷同布局都是错误的。)



How long(对时间段或for与since引导的内容提问,句中谓语也用延续性动词)


in / all one’s life(在或人一生);in / during the past / last+时间段 (在最近的…时间内) ;so far(“到今朝为止”); ever;never;just;before(拜见18之4) ;recently;.



already (用于句中或句尾,用在必定的告诉句中)

个中ever, just, never, already在句中时常放在动词已往分词前面。如:He has just gone.


She is a kind girl. What bad weather! I bought a new bike.


The girl is kind. His face turned red. It tastes sweet.

也可放在不定代词或不定副词后头作定语: somewhere warm; anything new (另见10)


He ran quickly. Please speak in the class aloud. Tim lives alone. 修饰动词

She is very angry. He felt too tired. I’m so lucky. 修饰形容词

He got up quite early. She did it very well. 修饰副词

Unluckily, I failed the English exam. 修饰整个句子

86.everyday与every day: everyday是形容词,后接名词,“日常的”。He is practicing everyday English. every day是副词,作时间状语,“天天”。We speak English every day.

87.everyone与every one: 1everyone“每小我私家;各人;所有人”,只指人。

后不接of短语。Everyone is here except Tom.

2every one“每一个”既可指人,也可指物。后常接of短语。

Every one of us has a dictionary. Every one of the trees is tall.

88.none与no one: 1no one“没有一人”只指人, 后不接of短语。

No one has been to Beihai Park. No one told us about it.



None of the children has/have been to Beihai Park.

(此处指人。因后有of短语,故不消no one)

A: How many elephants did you see there? B: None.

(对话中none单独用,不指人,故不消no one. 另见114)

89.乘交通东西之表达:1by bike / car / sea (ship) / air (plane) (前无冠词,且不消复数)

2on a horseback / his bike / the plane / a ship (有冠词或限定词)

He is talking with his teacher. May I talk to you?

(留意talk接人和接物时介词搭配差异:talk with / to sb ; talk about sth)

2tell只作及物动词,“汇报;讲”。常接双宾布局(tell sb sth.)

Mr. Li told us an interesting story. Who told you the news?

3say必需接有内容,或逻辑上有内容作宾语。 (所接内容见以下划线部门)

Please say it in English. He said nothing. Please show me what to say..

“I disagree with you.” said Tom. What will you say? Do you have anything to say?

say 若接sb, 则需先加to: I must say sorry to you.

“I overslept this morning.” he said to me.

4speak ●“措辞”不及物动词。He spoke too fast for me to follow.

●接人时先加介词to. May I speak to Mr. Smith?

●可表措辞的本领。The baby can speak now. 这个婴儿此刻能措辞。

There is something wrong with his throat, he can’t speak. 他的喉咙有病,说不成话。

●也可译为“演讲,讲话”Who will speak in the meeting?

●也可译为“说”,作及物动词,后接语言。Do you speak English / Chinese?

61.sometimes / some times / sometime / some time:

sometimes: “有时”=at times. He is sometimes late for school. (sometimes在be后)

I sometimes forgot my homework. (sometimes在实义动词前)

Sometimes he becomes very angry. (sometimes 也可放在句首或句尾)

some times: “屡次”I have been to Nanjing some times.

sometime: “某一时刻” I bought it sometime last spring. 我去年春天某个时候买的它。

We’ll meet again sometime next week. 我们下礼拜某个时候会再晤面的。

some time: “一段时间”We have to stay here for some time.

62.need 的用法:1need可当情态动词(和can等用法雷同,但need只用于疑问句或否认句中): Need I go now? (need 放在一般疑问句的开头)

I needn’t tell you the answer. (否认句中直接在need后加not)


2need 可当行为动词(和want 等用法雷同):

He needs a bike. (后可直接加名词)

I need to go over my lessons. (后可接带to不定式)

Do you need to have a rest? (一般疑问句中do, does, did在句首)

We don’t need to wait for her coming. (否认句中do, does, did提前)


【 注:need 后接表被动的内容时,可表达为: The TV needs to be repaired.

= The TV needs repairing.】 with 与deal with: 都译为“处理惩罚,搪塞,布置,应付”

What have you done with the milk? 用what提问。

How shall we deal with this problem? 用how提问。

下面两句由此而来:Could you tell me what to do with the milk?

Could you tell me how to deal with this problem?

64.就近原则:常见的有:Either you or Lucy is wrong.

There is a dog and two cats in the yard. (there be句型)

Not only you but (also) I am strict in the work.

Neither you nor Lucy has seen the film before.

65.主谓一致:One / Neither of you is right. (单数谓语)

Tom, with his friends, has gone. (主语是Tom, 单数谓语)

This pair of shoes looks beautiful. (主语是pair, 谓语用单数)

The shoes look beautiful. (此句主语无pair, 谓语用复数)

Every boy and every girl has a chance to do it. (此布局顶用单数谓语)

The old need to be looked after carefully. The young are energetic.

(the 加形容词表一类人或物,谓语用复数)

Mr. and Mrs. Green are from America. 指格林佳偶 (复数谓语)

The teacher and writer is an able man. 指西席兼作家, 一小我私家,单数谓语。

Both you and I are excited about the news. (both…..and …做主语,谓语用复数)

the number of与a number of拜见39. (分数表达见50, 其它见74之5)

66.quite / such / really用法之一:假如呈现不定冠词时,不定冠词常放在后头。

It’s quite an easy question. He is quite a clever boy.

It’s such an important lesson.(另见33) Lily is really a lazy girl.

67.部门用what 提问的句型:

What size do you want? 你想要多大尺寸的?

What will you do with the problem? 你将奈何处理惩罚这个问题?

What’s the population of China? 中国的人口是几多?

What day is it today?本日礼拜几? What’s the date today? 本日几月几号?

What’s the price of this one? 这个价格是几多?

What’s your address? 你的地点是什么?


What’s your phone number? 你的电话号码是几多?

68.there be部门用法:●there be 后跟的是名词。如:There will be rain tomorrow.

此处名词rain不能用rainy, raining等形式。

●常有以下布局: there may / will / must / is going to / used to /…be. …

●there be中不行再呈现have / has / had (译为“有”) 的词。

●there be 后接的是暗示泛指的名词,即不加the. There is a dog under the desk.

There is no water in the bottle. There are some books on the shelf.

●There is only a student taking notes now. (划线部门逻辑上是主谓干系,动词加ing)

There is no need to open the box. There are 20 trees to be planted. There is nothing to do.

(划线部门逻辑上不是主谓干系,动词常用带to 不定式。)



69.常见表否认的词或短语:no, not, hardly, few, little, neither, nor, nothing, nobody, none, nowhere, never等.(但前缀如dis--, un--, in--, im--, mis--或后缀如—less等词并不表否认。)

有些词或短语有时在某些句型中也相当于否认,如without, too…to…

without anything, too tired to go any further

70.常见后接动词原形的词或短语: why not / had better / please /would you please / let / make / 情态动词,等等。 (have“使、让”,可接动词原形,其它用法,另见36)

【留意否认形式: had better / would you please / let直接加not + 动原;

而please加don’t + 动原】


71.常见后接动词ing的词或短语:finish / enjoy / practice / give up / end up / put off / consider / keep / feel like / prefer…to…/ can’t help(不由得) / be busy / be worth(值得) / take turns(轮番) / miss(错过) / spend / have fun / 介词等。

72.常见后接带to不定式的词或短语:want / hope / wish / allow / encourage(勉励)/ ask / tell / pretend(冒充) / decide / plan / invite / urge / advise / warn / seem / in order (为了) 等等。

疑问词后也可跟带to不定式, 如how to do it。 it作形式主语,后也常有带to不定式。

【否认形式:以上大多词 + not + to do sth】

73.被动语态 (be + 动词已往分词) 用法:1主动语态为下列环境时被动语态的变革:

一般环境:I saw the accident . →The accident was seen by me.

We often do homework at night. →Homework is often done at night.

双宾环境:He told us a story.→We were told a story.(无to)→A story was told to us.(有to)

She passed me a pen.→I was passed a pen.(无to)→A pen was passed to me. (有to)

情态动词:We can make a plan. →A plan can be made.


举办时态:Tom is writing a letter.→A letter is being written by Tom. (be being done)

完成时态:I have finished the work. →The work has been finished. (have been done)



be made in + 所在 These watches are made in Shanghai.

be made of + 眼睛可以看出的原质料 This desk is made of wood. (仍能看出木头)

be made from +眼睛看不出的原质料 The paper is made from wood. (看不出木头)

be used for + 目标 English is often used for business. (用于贸易目标)

This machine is used for cutting things. (用于切割对象)

be used as …被用来看成…… English is used as a foreign language in China.

be made by + 人 The model ship was made by Lily.

be filled with / be covered with是牢靠短语,别离译为“被布满了…”和“被包围着…”

The room is filled with smoke. This bag is filled with rice.

The ground is covered with snow. The hill is covered with trees.

74.名词或所属格作定语:1强调性别时a man doctor / two men doctors ;

a woman teacher / six women teachers a man cleaner / some men cleaners


2a girl actor / four girl actors a boy player / two boy players

a bus station / some bus stations 复数只变被修饰的词, 定语不再变复数。

3a boys’ team / a gentlemen’s holiday / Teachers’ Day / Children’s Day / Nurses’ Day……

“复数 + ’s ” 作定语,译为“…的…”

4Father’s Day / Mother’s Day 此处“单数 + ’s ”作定语。

5and毗连的名词所属格:Lucy’s and Ann’s fathers are workers. 别离是两小我私家的爸爸,所以应别离加 ’s,做主语时谓语用复数。而下一句: Lucy and Ann’s father is very interesting. 两人共有的爸爸,两人后只加一个 ’s. 做主语时谓语用单数。

75.win与beat区别:都有“赢”的意思。 win后加物:I’m sure Jim will win the match.

We won the first place in the sports meeting. 我们赢了第一名。

而beat后加的是人,也可译为“打败”:I’m afraid they will beat us.

I hope we can beat the boys’ team. (男人队,相当于人。) / that / this / one今世词时的部门用法:1it 指上文的某个事物,和上文是同一个。

This book is very useful. I will take good care of it. it也可指上文所说的事:

My son has lost himself in the computer games. I’m worried about it.

in a hurry(慌忙), in pen / ink(用钢笔 / 墨水) (见105), in style(时新的)

in the day(在白日)(见92), in different sizes(以差异的巨细), in red(穿戴红衣服)in different shapes(以差异的形状) in a difficult situation(在坚苦环境下)

in good health(身体康健) in a red coat(穿戴红外套)(见46), in English(用英语)

in the way(挡道) in a low voice(用低的声音) in order to(为了,后接动词原形)


much / many→more→most bad / badly / ill→worse→worst

far→farther / further→farthest / furthest little→less→least

few→fewer→fewest old→older / elder→oldest / eldest

2常见较量级/第一流句型:He runs faster than me. (有than, 用较量级)

He did better than any other student in the school. (用较量级。另见48的other用法,)


Tom is the cleverest boy in his class. (某个范畴内,用第一流)

He is the taller of the two (boys). (两者,用较量级。)


He is the tallest of the three (boys) / of all. He jumped (the) farthest of the four.

(以上两句都指三者或更多,用第一流。前句因the在形容词第一流前,不行省略;尔后句因the在副词前, 可以省略。)

Which is better, tea or milk? (两者选择,用较量级。)

Which is the best, tea, milk or water? (三者或更多中选择,用第一流。)

It’s the second longest river in China. (序数词后的形容词或副词用第一流形式。)

3“越来越…”布局:“较量级 + and + 较量级”

He cried harder and harder. 他哭得越来越锋利了。 She is getting taller and taller.

雷同:bigger and bigger / happier and happier / fatter and fatter

/ stronger and stronger / richer and richer / worse and worse…

多音节词或部门双音节词:more and more beautiful / slowly / carefully / interesting…

4“越…, 越…” “the+较量级”别离置于两句的开头,作为倒装成份。

The more difficult English is, the harder you should study.英语越坚苦,你就要越尽力。

The younger we are, the more energy we have. 我们越年青,我们就越有活力。

The more you eat, the fatter you will get.你吃得越多,你就变得越胖。

5“越来越多的…”more and more + 名词 (既有可数名词,也有不行数名词。)

More and more people are getting richer and richer.

We need more and more desks / paper / trees / water …. (与3所接形 / 副差异)

6“…得多”much + 形容词 / 副词较量级

This room is much bigger than that one.

雷同:much taller / fatter / younger / heavier / faster / earlier / better…

留意多音节词或部门双音节词:much more careful / difficult / tiring / mysterious…

7“别的的…(个) …”布局:数量 + more + 名词,如two more students“另两个学生”

以下雷同:one more towel, three more suits, many more tiles, much more truth,

some more meat, a lot more wood, a little more experience,

once more = one more time = again. 上述布局有时也可用another + 数字 + 名词替代:

five more trees = another five trees (记着词的位置) (另见48, another), tell, say, speak: 1talk只作不及物动词。

Don’t talk in class. Shall we talk about our English study?  3in his / a car (car前用in) 4on foot

5动词短语: ride a bike / a horse; drive a car; walk; take a plane / taxi / bus; fly等。

90.kind of 与kinds of: 1kind of 单独用,暗示“有点”,后接形容词或副词:

He is kind of thin.”他有点瘦” I feel kind of hungry.”我有点饿”

Uncle Wang speaks kind of quickly. 王叔叔说得有点快。

2若kind of前有a, this, that, what等,译为“种,种类” 后加名词。

That kind of question is difficult to answer. 那类问题难答复。

What kind of sport do you like best? 你最喜欢何种举动?

3熟记一些短语:all kinds of...“各类百般的...” many kinds of“许多种类的”

different kinds of“差异种类的” 后都加名词。

91.rain / snow / wind的常见修饰词:a strong wind“一阵强风” a heavy rain

“一场大雨” heavy snow“大雪” (以上修饰词与后头名词构成了名词短语)

blow hard“激烈地吹” snow heavily“下大雪” rain hard / heavily“下大雨”


92.day的部门用法:1in eight days“8天后” (in + 时间段 “….时间后”. )

2in the day / daytime“在白日” (前加“in”)

3on Teachers’ Day / May Day on Monday(表节日或礼拜几,前用”on”. 另见110)

4(in) those / these days“在已往 / 此刻”= in the old days (用”in”)

5today, next / last / this / that / every / all day等前面常不加介词。


His family is going to move. My family is large. (以上指整体,谓语用单数)

My family are very well.我全家人很康健。 (指成员,谓语用复数)

雷同的尚有:staff(职员),class, team, public(公家),government等.

2有些名词只表复数,谓语只用复数。如people, police, cattle等:

The police are searching for a man with a big nose. The cattle have been killed .

3deer, fish,sheep等词的单数和复数形式沟通: a deer (一只鹿) / two deer (两只鹿)

a fish (一条鱼) / two fish (两条鱼) a sheep (一只羊) / some sheep (一些羊)

别的fish若暗示种类时,复数要在后加es: two fishes(两种鱼)



man→men; woman→women; foot→feet; tooth→teeth;

mouse→mice; child→children; ox→oxen (公牛)

5有些名词凡是只有复数形式 (阁下对称的):

scissors (铰剪) clothes(衣服) trousers (裤子) glasses(眼镜)

6有些名词只是不行数名词: It’s such great fun. What fun! What good news!

I won’t do anything in such bad weather. Can you tell me some information?

I like music which is popular. 雷同:a piece of chalk much knowledge

94.leave的用法:1leave可指“分开”leave Zhengzhou分开郑州

leave Zhengzhou for Wuhan分开郑州到武汉

leave for Wuhan动身到武汉 (for后接目标地,而不是出发地)

2leave留下;健忘 I left my backpack at home.

leave后接所在,而forget后无所在。如:Sorry, I forgot the money.

95. ill与sick的区别:1都可译为“生病的”。ill只在系动词后作表语:

Her mother was ill in bed. She feels ill today.

但sick既可作表语: Her mother was sick / ill in bed. (作表语常是美国英语用法)

也可作定语(即后接名词):Jane is taking care of her sick mother.

(此处是定语,不行用ill. 原因见下文ill用法)

2若ill作定语,译为“坏的,恶劣的”an ill person一个暴徒


The boy always feels sick when he travels by car.

96.return用法:1“返回”,相当于“go back / get back / come back..

如:Ann will visit you when he returns to London.


2“偿还”,相当于“give back”如:I have returned the dictionary.

(当“偿还”时是及物动词,后直接加物,不加to. 同样不行再跟back.)

You should return the piano to Dick on time. (后接有人时,方可加to)


97.favourite 与own的雷同布局: 形容词性物主代词 + favorite + 名词 “或人最喜欢的...”。同样,形容词性物主代词 + own + 名词“或人本身的...”

如:My favorite animal is dog. He found his own bike.


98.stop / start (begin) / forget (remember) / like / go on等动词:

1stop doing sth. 遏制正在做的某事。He was tired, so he stopped working.

stop to do sth. 停下来做某事(stop后是将要做的事)。

He was tired, so he stopped to have a rest.

有时两种形式会同时呈现:He was tired, so he stopped working to have a rest.

2start / begin doing / to do 寄义基内情同,但以下环境下start / begin后只接to do:

★若start / begin 已用举办时态时:He is just beginning / starting to write the letter.

★主语是物而不是人时:The ice began / started to melt. 冰开始融化。

★其后的动词与想法、情感有关时:He began / started to understand it.

3forget / remember to do sth. 健忘 / 想起将要做的事。

forget / remember doing sth. 健忘 / 想起已经做过的事。

4◆like doing sth. (因喜好而喜欢,暗示一种习惯)

Jack likes sleeping in the class. (在班睡觉虽不是功德,杰克却有这个喜好。表习惯。)

Jim doesn’t like helping others. (无助人的习惯或喜好)

◆like to do sth(因明智或正确而喜欢) She likes to help others. (助人正确,所以喜欢。)

I don’t like to play in the street. (在大街上玩不明智,故不喜欢)

大多环境下区别不明明,接两形式都可。He likes watching / to watch TV.

5go on doing sth.继承做某事(上文所做的事) go on to do sth接下来做另一件事.




Imemy ( pen / house...)minemyself

you(你)youyour (bag / car...)yoursyourself

hehimhis (desk / coat...)hishimself

sheherher (hair / books...)hersherself

ititits (tail / face...)itsitself

weusour (teachers / room...)oursourselves

you(你们)youyour (class / city...)yoursyourselves

theythemtheir (school / seats...)theirsthemselves


其宾格代词要用反身代词: I teach myself English. We solved the problems ourselves.

Lucy hurt herself by accident. You have to take care of yourself.)


100.基数词和序数词:基数词暗示人或物的数量。序数词暗示人或物的序次。留意以下几种形式:one→first two→second three→third five→fifth eight→eighth nine→ninth twelve→twelfth twenty→twentieth (thirty, forty, fifty…..都变y为i加 eth.)

别的,“四十”forty; 无字母u. “第九”ninth无字母e. / space / place: 1room“房间”(可数)a room / two rooms


Could you make room for me? 你能为我让一下空间吗?

Is there room for me in the car? 车里有我的位子吗?


in the dark space在暗中的宇宙空间(太空) time and space时间和空间

Is there any space for me in the car? 车里有给我留的空间吗?(此处和room的寄义相当)


I want to live in a place which is warm in winter. 我想住在冬季暖和的一个处所。

Mount Chaya is a wonderful place. 嵖岈山是一个奇妙之地。


1China“中国” Chinese(无复数形式)“中国人(的)/ 中文(的)/ 中国的”

a Chinese/ two Chinese“一个 / 两其中国人” Japan, Japanese 和此雷同。

2England“英国(原义:英格兰)” (= Britain)

English(无复数形式)“英国人(的)/ 英语(的)/ 英国的”

He is English.(前无冠词)= He is an Englishman.(前有冠词)“他是英国人”

留意复数:They are English. = They are Englishmen. (变为men)

3France“法国” French(无复数形式)“法国人(的) / 法语(的) / 法国的”

The lady is French. (前无冠词)= The lady is a Frenchwoman.(前有冠词)

留意复数:The ladies are French. = The ladies are Frenchwomen.

4Germany“德国” German“德国人(的) / 德语(的) / 德国的”

The boy is a German. (前有冠词) The boys are Germans.(复数加s.)

5America“美国” American“美国人(的)/ 美国的”

He is American.(前常无冠词) They are Americans.(复数加s)

103.易写错词形:◆noise(名词)“噪音”; noisy(形容词); noisily(副词)


◆health(名词)“康健”; healthy(形容词); healthily(副词)

◆luck(名词)“命运”; lucky(形容词)“幸运的”; luckily(副词)

◆succeed(动词)“乐成”; success(名词); successful(形容词); successfully(副词)

◆save(动)“救”; safe(形)“安详的”; safety(名)“安详,安详场合”safely(副) “安详地”

◆true(形)“真的,对的”; truly(副)“真正地”; truth(名)“真理, 事实”

◆terrible(形容词)“难熬的,可骇的”; terribly(副词)“可骇地”

104. job与work: 1job, 可数:I have a job as a teacher. Jobs are not easy to get.

2work, 不行数:I cannot find work in this town. Have you finished your work?

105.with和in暗示“用”:1with用东西:write with a pen / a pencil / a piece of chalk

2in用写字质料:write in ink / pen (质料前无冠词)

106.时刻之表达:1分钟未过半点 如7:20→seven twenty→twenty past seven;

2:02→two oh two→two past two 以上环境不行用带to的表达,但可用past。

2分钟已过半点 如5:45→five forty-five→a quarter to six→fifteen to six

1:58→one fifty-eight→two to two 以上环境不行用past, 但可用to.

3恰好半点,如9:30→nine thirty→half past nine

4恰好整点,如11:00→eleven o’clock 15:00→fifteen o’clock + 形 + of sb 与 for sb的区别:1It’s kind of you to help me. 你辅佐我真好。


表明:kind, nice, good, clever, foolish,lazy等词暗示的是人的特点或性格。此句相当于在说You are kind to help me. 形容词在描写人而不是事,此环境下介词用的是of. 又如:

It’s very clever of you to do it in such a way. 你用那种要领做它可真太智慧了。(指人智慧)

2It’s easy for you to do the work. 对你来说做这事是容易的。

表明:easy,difficult, necessary, important, dangerous, interesting等词假如在句中不反应人的特点或性格,如此句中并不是在说You are easy. 而是”To do the work is easy”。不是说人,而是说事。此环境下介词用的是for. 又如:It’s dangerous for us to climb the mountain. 不是说“我们”是危险的,而是说“登山”这件事是危险的。故用for.

108. take, bring, fetch与carry: 都译为“拿”。

◆take“拿走”,从措辞人处带到另一处。 Could you take the rubbish out when you leave?

◆bring“带来”,从另一处带到措辞人处。 Don’t forget to bring your homework here tomorrow.


如: When you go back to the classroom, please fetch me my pen.


◆carry“拿、搬、扛”,没有特定偏向。 Tim is carrying a box.

109. 条件与祈使: 有时条件句可以与祈使句彼此转换。留意以下句子布局有何差异。

1If you work hard, you will achieve your dream. 含条件句,相当于:

Work hard, and you will achieve your dream. 含祈使句,按照句意,用and毗连后一句子。

2If you don’t listen carefully, you won’t understand it. 相当于:

Listen to me carefully, or you won’t understand it. 按照句意,用or (不然)毗连后一句子。

110. in / on / at + 时间:1in three days (“…时间后”,常用一般未来时。另见92)

in September(in跟“月”) in 1998(in跟“年”) in the 1860s(在十九世纪六十年月)

in the morning/ afternoon/ evening/ night (morning / afternoon / evening / night若无前置或后置修饰词时, 用in the …短语。) (in其它用法见58)

2on Christmas Eve; on October 1st; (on跟“日”)

on Sunday evenings; on a cold morning; on a windy night.

on the morning / afternoon / evening / night of September 10th.

(morning / afternoon / evening / night若有前置或后置修饰词时,如以上划线词,

前面用的是on. 而若是early / late 修饰时,仍用介词in. 如:in an early morning )

on Fridays; on New Year’s Day; (另见92)

3at 6:00; at Christmas; at noon; at night

111. one day与someday / some day的区别:

1one day“某一天,有一天” 既可用于一般已往时,也可用于一般未来时。

One day, a stranger came to my house. (指已往的一天,用已往时。)

I will achieve my dream one day. 某天我会实现空想的。 (指未来,用未来时)

2someday = some day“ (未来的)某一天”用一般未来时。可以和one day交流。

We’ll beat them someday. 有朝一日我们会打败他们的。

I’m sure I can win someday. 我确信某天我会嬴。

112. missing与lost: 都可译为“丢失的,失踪的”


My pen is lost / missing. (表语) I’ve found the missing / lost book. (定语)

113.常见部门名词及其修饰词:1price(价值)常用high 与low修饰。

sell sth at a high / low price 以高 / 低价出售. The price of the shoes is high / low.

2number(数量)常用big / large和small修饰:The number of the students is big.

3quality(质量,品质)常用low / poor和high / good修饰。

4population(人口)常用big / large和small修饰:China has a large population.

(以上词都不消many, much修饰。)


1What is on the desk? →Nothing. (不消none)

2Who is in the classroom? → Nobody. (不消none)

3How much water is in the bottle? → None. (不消nothing)

How many people are in the room? →None. (不消nobody)

(how many / much都是对数量提问,所以用相应表数量的词none答复,

而what / who不表数量,故不消none答复)



What fun! 何等有趣啊!(what 跟名词) It’s such great fun. 这可真有趣。(such加名词)

Skating is great fun. 溜冰太有意思了。(be good / great fun)

have fun (in) doing sth 做某事很快乐 make fun of 取笑

It sounds like fun. 这听起来有趣。(like,“像”,加名词)

116.except / except for / besides: 都译为“除了…之外”

1except后头的人或物不包罗在前面工具傍边。 We all failed except him.

“我们都失败了,除了他。” 此话意味着他没有失败。“我们”不包罗“他”。

2except for 说明整个根基环境后,对细节加以更正。

The book is good except for its price. 书很好,就是太贵。

He is an able man except for bad memory. 他是个有才气的人,就是影象力差了点。



We all succeeded besides him. 除了他乐成外,我们也都乐成了。“我们”傍边包罗“他”。


prefer…to…(见27); look forward to …(等候;盼愿); pay attention to…(留意);

be used to …(习惯于,见37); (以上短语可接名词或代词,若接动词,需用ing形式)

the key to…(…的钥匙, …的谜底, 后者便是the answer to); the ticket to…(…的票);

the solution to …(…的办理步伐) reply to (….的复原); lead to …(引起…)


118.because与why的部门用法:若别离引导从句,即在It’s / That’s 等之后,则because后表原因,why后表功效。如: I came late today. It’s because the bus broke down on the way.

和下文较量:The bus broke down on the way. That’s why I came late.


又如:He broke my window, that’s why I was angry. 和下文较量:

I was angry with him, that’s because he broke my window.


◇no表“无,没有”接名词,便是not one, not a, not any:

There is no water in the river. (=not any water)

I have no book to read. (=I don’t have a book to read.)

◇no表“不许”,不行用not. 如: No parking. 克制停车 No photos. 不许照相

◇no表“不”,后接形容词或副词,相当于not (any).

He feels no worse.他不再感受难熬了。 =He doesn’t feel any worse.

雷同,no more = not any more.

◇在对问题的否认答复时,要用no,与yes对应。不消not. 见122.

120. That’s all right / All right / That’s right. 的区别:

That’s all right. = That’s OK. “没什么,别客套”,是对对方致谢或致歉时的答复。

All right. = OK. “行,好,可以”,暗示同意。

That’s right. = You are right. “你说的对;对”,暗示认同对方的概念。

121.on表方法的用法(常译为“靠,借助”):I hear music on the radio.

He learns English on TV. He found out the information on the Internet.

Tom learned the news on the newspaper. John saw Effel Tower on the film.

He told me the news on the phone. (留意:TV前无the.)


He isn’t Tom. / He is Tom. Is he Tom? / Isn’t he Tom?

He is Tom, isn’t he? / He isn’t Tom, is he?

对以上各句的答复,若是:Yes, he is.则都指“他是Tom.”

而若用No, he isn’t.答复,则都指“他不是Tom.” 同样,以下所有句子:

Lucy likes music, doesn’t she? / Lucy doesn’t like music, does she?

Lucy likes music. / Lucy doesn’t like music.

Does Lucy like music? / Doesn’t Lucy like music?

答复人若用yes,都暗示Lucy喜欢音乐; 若用no, 都暗示Lucy 不喜欢音乐。


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